Searching for women in our trees only gets harder the further in time you go. Women and girls weren’t even listed in the Census by name until 1850! Further, sexist laws prevented women from owning property or inheriting kept women out of those records, thus generally the tax records as well. This complicates things for the genealogist, as those documents can be vital for research before 1850 in particular.
I’m currently researching my own maternal line, so I thought this might be a good time to gather up some helpful resources and share them here. Perhaps I should (and will!) write my own helpful posts as well, but for now, I’m too busy on the hunt! 🔍🕵️♀️
Formerly called A. Warde & Co., I felt like it was time for a change. This name suits me much better, because it’s a bit tongue-in-cheek because it’s obviously a terrible pun. But see, I am ALL ABOUT the terrible puns.
Plus, it’s much more memorable, no?
I’ve spent most of the last week working on this new site & creating new worksheets that I will be using during my research. I still have a few to go, and I need to polish up the text on my site, and get a new logo, but, I’m getting close!
I’m looking forward to getting this site & blog ready to be shared with folks!
The first step of genealogy is to figure out your goal. Are you interested just to see who your immigrant/furthest-back ancestors are, or are you also interested in the lives of all the people in between?
When I was young and new to genealogy, I was all about trying to go as far back as possible as quickly as possible. I only really cared to find out countries of origin and if any particularly cool people were in the family line.
Now, however, my favorite part is to get to know each generation of ancestors. I find it interesting to try to find out things about their lives. Did they have an impact on their local community? Were they a preacher or a politician or soldier or a regular citizen? Did they have 20 kids, or 3? Did they farm or did they live in a city? Did they strike it rich or did they live in perpetual poverty? Etc, etc.
Genealogy is historical research. Never save information from someone else’s tree or website without investigating their source yourself. The genealogy community is RIFE with misinformation from sloppy researching and the accepting of Ancestry.com suggestions without actually checking to see they are correct. Always make sure you have legitimate historical sources (so, actual records, not someone else’s research) AND that you cite your own sources as well. Trust me, somewhere down the line you’ll try to figure out where some fact came from, and you will NOT be pleased with yourself if you didn’t cite your source properly! In a future post I will go into more detail about sources & citations.
For those completely new to genealogy, I have compiled a list of super important things you must know! before you get started:
Spelling was not standard until very recently. You will frequently find someone’s name spelled differently in each source. Don’t assume that different spellings are different people!
Dates and ages, too, are fluid. Make sure you always note the dates & ages used in each record, because it is still important to note and can help tell people with the same names apart, but don’t freak out of the dates & ages do fluctuate a bit with the same person.
Names ran in families back then. It is very common to find many John Smiths or whatever in the same family. Kids are often named after a grandparent/parent/aunt/uncle/cousin/etc, so sometimes you also have people with the same name and around the same age. ALWAYS be careful not to combine multiple “John Smith”s into one composite ancestor. In future posts I’ll talk more about how to tell such people apart, but for now I’ll say that noting their parents/birthdays/professions/etc can help.
Not all records are online!! And not all online records are indexed (searchable)! You can find a LOT online, but you can find even more offline, at local courthouses and libraries and archives. I will go into more detail about this later as well.
Not all records exist for every location. States that didn’t exist until the 1900s will not have federal censuses from 1840, for example. There have also been countless fires and natural disasters that have destroyed many records. It’s important to always look up record information about the state/county you are currently researching to find out what is available, and where. The FamilySearch Wiki is great for this.
Most notable: THE 1890 CENSUS WAS DESTROYED! There are a very few fragments that survived, but overall, it’s gone. It makes genealogists weep frequently. There are ways around that missing census, though, which we will get into in the future.
Speaking of censuses, they are invaluable- the backbone of genealogy research- but don’t take any fact on the census as gospel. The person being enumerated was not always the person telling the census taker the information. Sometimes it was a young kid or a neighbor, if they adults were out. Many mistakes stem from that. Also, the census records we get to see are actually handwritten copies of the original, and sometimes there are transcription errors. And sometimes the enumerators were lazy (like, writing down that everyone on that page was born in that state without actually asking). And then of course, sometimes people just forget! Birthdays and exact places where people were born were less important and less notable back then. So mostly you have to collect the data from ever source and try to figure out which is used the most and which is most likely and supported by other clues.
This is also true for death certificates (and headstones and obituaries). They aren’t filled out by the deceased, and the children and friends don’t always know their birthday exactly, or the maiden name of their mother or where she was born, etc. So absolutely note it, but also know that it may or may not be correct, you’ll have to check other sources to confirm.
And once again, PAY ATTENTION TO AND NOTE THE SOURCES! Make sure you are getting your facts from the historical documents themselves, and not someone else’s tree or webpage. By all means look at their trees, just mine their trees for their sources and then check them out yourself!
Do you have any questions or requests of what to cover next? Let me know in the comments!
Happy St. Paddy’s day, everyone! I have spent the last month spending every waking moment either 1.) moving all my earthly possessions from Ohio to Pennsylvania, or 2.) researching my Irish family, which I previously knew next to nothing about. And not actually in that order (halfway through our first month here and I am still surrounded by boxes!)
I have learned an incredible amount these past few weeks, with PLENTY of research left to do, but I’m excited to share what I have so far!
What I knew going in.
Before this month, I had only one census for Michael Warde, who was born in Ireland, and two for his wife (also born in Ireland.) Both in San Francisco, and the first showing that the eldest daughter was born in Canada, and the next in California 2 years later. I knew they had 5 kids and that Michael had a liquor wholesale company, and i had rather recently found out that he had made pretty good money, as when he died in 1889, there was a newspaper article that said his estate, left to his wife, was estimated at $20,000 ($503,267.93 in modern dollars!)
But, that was about it.
Photo courtesy of distant cousin Eleanor McIntyre, who sent this to me a few days ago. First picture I have ever seen of Michael Warde!
Michael John Warde was born about 1842 in County Galway, Ireland, to Peter Ward and Mary [—?—] (born about 1809 in Oranmore Parish, County Galway, Ireland.) It is unknown when they left Ireland, but his eldest daughter was born in Montreal, Quebec, and in his mother’s San Francisco obituary there is a request for both Montreal & Galway newspapers to copy it into their own obituary sections. Thus, Michael may have moved to Montreal with his parents, possibly at a rather young age. Besides his daughter’s baptism record in the records of the Notre-Dame Basilica of Montréal in 1868, we have no record of him before his 1870 census in San Francisco, so when –or why– he left Ireland is still not known.
I only found his parents – via an obituary of his mother, Mary Ward, that I stumbled across – two days ago, and I’m having a hard time finding anything about them yet, but hopefully I will unravel them, too. And the siblings! There are quite a few Ward/Warde’s in San Francisco at the same time as my family, and I’d love to know which are related!
While I will need more documentation to back this up, the sibling names & connection to both Galway & Montreal have me pretty much convinced that this is my family. My great-grandfather – Michael Warde’s eldest son- is named Daniel Maurice. I’ve always wondered where the Maurice came from! Looks like he was named after two uncles. His younger brother is John, so he seems named after an uncle as well. There was also a Dan Warde living with the family in the 1880 census.
On the 1870 census, Michael is listed as “liquor dealer,” but on the 1872-1875 city directories he is listed as a clerk for the Chenery, Souther & Co. liquor company. 1875 is likely the year he began his own liquor wholesaling business, M. Warde & Co.
This ad can be seen frequently in San Francisco Newspapers at the time, this one is from the Daily Alto California, 30 Mar 1884.
The business did very well, and in 1889 (the year he died) he had made it into “The Industries of San Francisco, California : a review of the manufacturing, mercantile and business interests of the Bay City : together with a historical sketch of her rise and progress.” (Cosmopolitan Publising Co., San Francisco, 1889:)
Michael also owned quite a bit of real estate in San Francisco & San Rafael. I’ve found his addresses and clippings here and there of some of the real estate transfers & mortgage-letting involving him or his widow once he passed, but I have yet to plot all the areas and figure out how to find -ALL- of what he had owned.
I have also found several clipping about his involvement with The Farmers Steamship Company, which he was a director and the secretary of. The company was made to create and operate steamships on the Pacific coast to help reduce the cost of transportation of goods between San Louis Obispo to South Santa Monica. The company began with 50,000 shares of stock, valued at $20 each. $75,000 worth of stock was subscribed in the first few weeks. Each boat was expected to cost $75,000-$80,000 each. This company started in the spring of 1881, and I have not been able to find any record of it outside of the business listings & articles pertaining to it’s inception for that year, so I cannot yet say how the business did.
Image from http://www.annapolisaoh.com
Michael has definitely made me work on this one. I have spent WEEKS looking through newspaper clippings. I have so many I’ve had to organize them in tables, by topic, in separate OneNote pages… 13 of them! From what I know so far he was involved in the following organizations:
The Ancient Order of Hibernians – He was elected state delegate 4 times only a couple years after he moved to the US. He helped start new chapters around the state, including Los Angeles. There were around 7,000 members at one point of his officership.
The Knights of St. Patrick
The Young Ireland Parliamentary Club
The Irish National League
The Irish National Land League
The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
He was the President of the San Francisco Saint Patrick’s Day Convention for a while
He was the secretary of the Convention of Irish Societies (San Francisco) for a while
Not only was he a member in all these organizations, but he was extremely active. He often held positions and gave speeches and attended important community events. He was a passionate Irish-Catholic who was involved in the fight for Irish independence from Britain at every opportunity.
This photo also courtesy of distant cousin Eleanor McIntyre! And also my first view of Margaret Toohey!
Michael’s issue is as follows:
Margaret TOOHEY (b. Abt 1809, Oranmore Parish, Co. Galway, Ireland; d. 16 Apr 1907, San Francisco, San Francisco, California)
Mary G. (b. 26 Mar 1867, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; d. Between 1920 – 1927)
Married Frederick W. Noble (1871- 1918)
Margaret Worden Noble (1901 – ?) – No issue
Elvian Marie Noble (1909 – 1977) – No issue
Margaret Helen (b. 27 Mar 1869, California; d. 16 Apr 1959, Shelby, Cleveland, NC)
Married John Henry McDowell (1866-1924)
Henry McDowell (Abt 1897, lived a few days or less) – No issue
John Lewis McDowell (1897-1984) m. Docia Bowen
Dorothy McDowell (1901-1988) m. Robert Leslie Alexander
Robert McDowell Alexander (1926-2004)
Geraldine McDowell (1903 – ?) m. Manuel Cruz
Alberto Cruz (1928-1997)
Robert Garren McDowell (1912-1961) m. Evelyn Potter
Robert G. McDowell Jr.
Daniel Maurice (b. 19 Aug 1872, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; d. 12 Jul 1949, Van Nuys, Los Angeles, CA) — My great-grandfather
Married Laura Frances Landers
Robert Fletcher Warde (1921-1998) – My grandfather – m. Helen Mjoseth
Dana Michael Warde (1952 – 2000) – My father
Eileen Warde (1961 – 1994)
John Davis (b. 6 Jan 1876, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; d. 13 Oct 1941, San Francisco)
Married Stella Ward
John Davis Warde Jr (1906-1992) – no known issue
Katherine Warde (1908 – ?) – issue unknown
Henry W. (b.Apr 1879, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; d. 5 Jun 1915, Lodi, San Joaquin, CA) – no issue
I’m not sure how many Warde-descendants are in my generation and beyond yet, but at the least we know that Michael and Margaret had 5 children, 10 grandchildren, and at least 9 great-grandchildren.
Michael Warde died 28 Aug 1889 in San Francisco. He left his entire estate, initially valued at $20,000, to wife Margaret. After probate was filed (I still need to try to get my hands on it, as these are currently just numbers from the papers) and his estate was appraised and submitted to the courts – it’s value was actually $43,161.10! That is is $1,086,079.87 in today’s money! Not bad for an Irish-Catholic immigrant during a time when most of his fellow countrymen were working as highly underpaid laborers who had to deal with so much discrimination and anti-Catholicism.
Daily Alta California, 30 Aug 1889
This is only really a part of what I’ve found so far, and much more needs to be done to fill in the gaps & validate many of these facts, but after spending so much time fully immersed in Michael Warde’s life, it seemed absolutely ridiculous that I wouldn’t post about it on St. Patrick’s Day! So, here is a rather rough sketch of Michael John Warde’s life. As time goes on I will continue to post about the stories I’ve found and more about his descendants.
Until then, Happy Saint Patrick’s Day, everyone!
Name:Warde, Michael (1842-1889) Parents: Peter Ward and Mary Carich Spouse: Margaret Twohey Surnames: Ward, Warde Relationship to Me: 2nd Great-Grandfather
Fossils of Neanderthal DNA Clump in Human Genome Next time you call someone a Neanderthal, better look in a mirror. Many of the genes that help determine most people’s skin and hair are more Neanderthal than not, according to two new studies that look at the DNA fossils hidden in the modern human genome.
The Making of the Fittest: Got Lactase? The Co-evolution of Genes and Culture Follow human geneticist Spencer Wells, Director of the Genographic Project of the National Geographic Society, as he tracks down the genetic changes associated with the ability to digest lactose as adults, tracing the origin of the trait to less than 10,000 years ago, a time when some human populations started domesticating animals.
I spent the week around New Year’s in NYC with friends. I’ve been there many times, but somehow, I had not yet been to Ellis Island. So, I drug two of them, somewhat unwillingly (unexcited, at the very least) and OFF WE WENT! 😀
First off, can I say. DANG. It was frigid cold out, and the line for tickets was HOURS long. We stood out there freezing for quite a while before I was like… wait… I have the internet on my phone…..
So, I got on my phone and I bought 3 tickets. And then I walked straight to the front of the line (several minute walk you guys!!!) and grabbed my tickets from the online order windows, where there was only one person in front of me. They were talking to the person behind the window “why don’t these people just buy them on the phone if they didn’t order them in advance?” and I was like “that’s what I just did!” and we all thought I was very smart, the end.
Anyway, so after that we just waltzed into the line. The line for the airport-like security, that is. I wasn’t expecting that! And then came the impossibly cold ferry ride. Naturally my friends wanted to ride the open top level for the views, so I was sitting up there with them, wondering if the immigration hospital was still open for frostbite & pneumonia patients..
The museum was quite good. We got there near the end of the day & around half the place was closed due to damage for Hurricane Sandy last year, so I’ll definitely have more to see next time I go, which is exciting.
You can see the rest of my Ellis Island PhotosHERE. I tried to take lots & make them as readable as possible so you can take a vicarious pilgrimage yourselves. 🙂
A large part of genealogy is reading old documents. The problem is, that shi* is hard. The good part is, that means that if we study it and master it, people will pay us to read things for them! And that shi* is awesome.
But the learning process, man. I love/hate it.
The National Archives of the UK is a godsend for wanna be paleographers. On their website, they have 10 (huge, enormous, challenging) documents (letters, wills, court documents, etc) that give you a mini-lesson on, and then walk you through as you transcribe each, line by line.
I did pretty well on the first document (Princess Elizabeth I’s letter to her sister Queen Mary) and so I’m kind of surprised at how ABSOLUTELY AND UTTERLY LOST AND CONFUSED I am on this will. It’s incredible how much handwriting changes over time and based on location. Which, while making me shake my metaphoric cane at this damned lesson, just confirms how important it is that I actually start taking paleography seriously as a dedicated genealogist.
So, what about you? Have you studied paleography? Have you mastered the National Archives’s educational brain torture? Do you know how to properly make the word Archives into a possessive? I am seriously considering the University of Strathclyde’s Msc in Genealogical, Palaeographic, and Heraldic Studies, and I also have the book Reading Early American Handwriting (if your research extends into early America, you should get this book!). I need to sit down and work on it some more when I move and am able to retrieve all of my belongings out of storage, but as for now I find this online tutorial from the National Archives (UK) to be the best study of old handwriting available. And it’s free! Free is also awesome!
PS: Line five there says “and other uncertanties of this transitory” — if you got that on your own, you are a much better wo/man than I!
Get my mother’s, son’s, & paternal aunt’s (my father passed away a long time ago) DNA tested. And possibly my paternal uncle’s DNA as well if I can get back in touch with him.
Get my paternal grandmother’s copy of Final Verdict by Adela Rogers St. Johns. The book is about St. John’s father, Earl Rogers, and my paternal grandfather’s aunt was his second wife. The book apparently mentions my great and great-great grandmother a number of times as well. I want to get the copy of that book & also transcribes the parts that describe my ancestors.
Trace the decendancy of my paternal-line immigrants.
Have current information for all of the descendants of my maternal great-great grandparents.
Write the main Hixson family researcher whose work I find all across the interwebs & local libraries.
Get (buy or print if available online) all the possible certificates for my parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents!
Find a good way to back things up on paper (I know, TEH HORROR!) and organize files, and then do eet.
Decide on a software program to use! Ugh. Really I want to design my own, but I have -1000 desire to learn how to code.
Standardize my OneNote files as much as possible. (I DO love OneNote, but I don’t count that as a regular genealogy program, I just use it heavily)
Write 3 articles to submit to professional journals
Go to a conference or similar meeting
Join a local genealogy society
Get a professional website
Get business cards!
Have at least one new client a month
Learn how to properly utilize courthouse records for genealogy.
Figure out how to utilize the Family History Library local branch(es) to check out research material.
Visit Bedford/Fulton Co, where my PA ancestors lived.
Visit the national archives!
I might even start working towards a MSc in Genealogical, Palaeographic and Heraldic Studies through the University of Strathclyde’s distance learning program! 😮 I am so, so excited at this prospect, guys! But 3 years? Dang. D: And so much money…. but I think i’m going to do it!
I’m sure I’m forgetting a bunch. Did you make a similar resolution list? Link me up in the comments!
I’m about to send out for a land patent application packet for one of my clients’ ancestors in the hopes that it will tell me where he’s from. I’ve never dealt with land patent applications before, so I’m excited to get some experience with something new!
And, it made me think. I wonder what other super useful records are out there that I haven’t used or don’t know about? Birth, christening, marriage, death, obituary, burial, and census records all go without saying, so let’s not say them, and say other things instead.
In the comments below, tell to me this: What are the top 5 records (or evidence of any kind) that you find are the most useful and informative in genealogy research?
I'm Ameya Warde, a California-born, Ohio-raised, Colorado-living genealogist focusing on American research. I've been working on my genealogy since childhood, and began doing it professionally 5 years ago.
This blog is a place to share interesting things I've been working on and share tips and tricks with other family history researchers!